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Winona M. Garmhausen Papers

Identifier: IAIAMS007

Scope and Content

This collection is an excellent source of information about the history of Indian Education in America, and the inner workings of the administrative and educational programs of the Institute of American Indian Arts between its founding in 1962 and its accreditation in 1983. In her doctoral dissertation, Ms. Garmhausen proposed that the students who attended IAIA during its formative years under the liberal arts direction of George Boyce were better served academically and artistically than those who were taught under the art school education of Lloyd New. She supported her thesis statement with an extensive questionnaire that she used to collect data from current students and alumni at IAIA from 1962-1976. Based on her readings, her in-depth interviews, and her relationship with Administrative Director George Boyce after his retirement from IAIA, Ms. Garmhausen was able to accumulate a well-rounded literature review that supported her thesis with many original documents. Her access to eye-witness testimony and subsequent personal commentary about the beginnings of IAIA lends an authoritative voice to her writing. The collection covers a wide range of subjects, including the UNM Doctoral Program, history of the Santa Fe Indian Boarding School system, Native American Art, Indian Art Education, Contemporary and Traditional Indian Art Exhibitions, Women’s History, and various programs at IAIA during this time period. Some notable IAIA Administrators mentioned in the collection are George Boyce, Lloyd New, Dave Warren and Gene Fulgenzi. The collection also includes information about a variety of artists and writers such as Fritz Scholder, Pablita Velarde, Alan Houser, Dorothy Dunn, Georgia O’Keefe, Edna Ferber, and Mabel Dodge Lujan. The George Boyce Papers contained in Sub-Series 3.4 provide interesting background information on both this former IAIA Director and the important role he played there during the formative years. His papers reflect not only Mr. Boyce’s devotion and dedication to the principles of Indian Education and to IAIA, but also his deep disappointment that the school’s administration during the late 1960s veered away from its original purpose of providing a well-rounded liberal arts education to Native Americans. His dislike for Lloyd New and Mrs. Stewart Udall is palpable and is based on his belief that they misunderstood the fundamental purpose of IAIA and its role in Indian Education. Additionally, Mr. Boyce was a staunch supporter of positive representation of Native Americans in both public and private forums. Any derogatory comments, whether in print or in conversation, set him to writing multi-page treatises with numerous examples of supporting documentation. After his retirement, Mr. Boyce’s communications ran the gamut of letters, essays, and commentaries to Senators, Congressmen, Tribal Council Members, newspaper and magazine editors, and local officials of all kinds. The George Boyce Papers in this collection show a man with firm beliefs, a large personality, a strong will and a tender heart for his former students. His correspondence with young men who served during the Vietnam War is both charming and touching.


  • Majority of material found within Bulk, 1976-1983
  • 1891-1990 1962-1983

Access Restrictions

Access is by appointment only. There may be restrictions to this collection; please contact the archivist for more information. IAIA reserves the right to restrict any or all materials as necessary to protect IAIA, American Indian religious and cultural practices, and individual and financial privacy.

Copy Restrictions

Limited duplication of print materials is allowed for research purposes. It is the responsibility of the user to obtain permission to publish from the owner of the copyright (the institution, the creator of the record, the author or his/her transferees, heirs, legates, or literary executors). The user agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Institute of American Indian Arts, its board, faculty, employees, and agents from and against all claims made by any person asserting that he or she is an owner of copyright.

Biographical/Historical note

Winona H. Garmhausen was a professor at IAIA from 1976-1978. During this time, she observed the school, its administration, and its curriculum from the perspective of both its past under the leadership of George Boyce and its future under the leadership of Lloyd New. This was also the time that IAIA was going through its transition from high school and 2 year college to a full 4 year accredited academic program. It was a time of great upheaval.


9.75 Cubic Feet

19 boxes (9.75 cu. ft) The collection is located on the campus of IAIA, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The archives are located in the Library & Technology Center.

Language of Materials



The Winona Garmhausen Papers consists of the published dissertation, drafts, other academic writings, research photocopies, budgets, evaluations, reports, surveys, letters, memoranda, brochures, pamphlets, posters, newspaper clippings, magazines, journals, booklets, pamphlets, personal correspondence, photographs, and slides that were created and collected during the period from 1975 to 1983 while she researched and wrote her doctoral dissertation for the American Studies Department at the University of New Mexico.

Arrangement note

The Winona H. Garmhausen Papers are arranged in 6 Series. Series 1, 2 and 3 are each divided into sub-series, while the remaining three series are single series. As indicated below, the series are arranged by author, chronology, format, or categorical subject order depending on their contents. Each box contains multiple folders with individual or groups of items. Folder descriptions reflect topical themes, and include notations of some particular items of interest. The arrangement scheme was imposed during processing and arose primarily from the original order with some concession to reasonable categorical arrangement for the Literature Review and chronological arrangement for the Personal Papers.

Series 1. Dissertation Files, c. 1976-1983. Sub-Series 1.1 Published Editions and Drafts; Box 1-6; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 1.2 Hand-Written Notes; Box 7-8; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 1.3 Other Writings; Box 9; Arranged by author.

Series 2. Literature Review: 1901-1994 Sub-Series 2.1 Indian Art and Education; Box 10; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 2.2 Historical Research; Box 10; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 2.3 Newspapers, Magazines, Booklets; Box 11; Arranged by categorical subject.

Series 3. IAIA: 1961-1997 Sub-Series 3.1 Administration; Box 12; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 3.2 Education; Box 13; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 3.3 Memorabilia; Box 14-15; Arranged by categorical subject. Sub-Series 3.4 Administrator’s Papers-George Boyce; Box 16; Arranged by chronological order. Sub-Series 3.5 Administrator’s Papers-Others; Box 17; Arranged by author.

Series 4. Artists and Exhibitions; 1969-1983; Box 18; Arranged by categorical subject.

Series 5. Personal Papers; 1977-1990; Box 19; Arranged by chronological order.

Series 6. Photographs; 1965-1987; Box 20; Arranged by format.

Processing Information

Arrangement: Rose Marie Cutropia, IAIA Student Intern; Description: Ryan S. Flahive The arrangement of this collection has been done according to the creator’s original order, with only slight categorical re-arrangement for the Literature Review and chronological re-arrangement for the Personal Papers.
Guide to the Winona M. Garmhausen Papers
Edited Full Draft
Finding aid prepared by Ryan S. Flahive
© 2009
Language of description
Script of description
Code for undetermined script
Language of description note
Finding aid is in English

Revision Statements

  • Monday, 20210524: Attribute normal is missing or blank.

Repository Details

Part of the Institute of American Indian Arts Repository